Fact on Iron

Iron ores are rocks and mineral deposits from which clanging iron can be reasonably extracted. The ores are generally prosperous in iron oxides and fluctuate in color ranging from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to even rusty red. The iron by its own is usually found in the structure of magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), goethite, limonite or siderite. Hematite is also identified as "natural ore". The nomenclature dates back to the early years of drawing out, when certain hematite ores comprised 66% iron and could be fed reliably into iron edifice blast furnaces. Iron ore is the unrefined substance utilized to formulate pig iron, which is one of the most important untreated materials to compose steel. 98% of the hauled out iron ore is used to produce steel.

Uncontaminated iron ore is almost nameless on the exterior of the Earth apart from the combination of Fe-Ni alloys from meteorites and very atypical forms of unfathomable mantle xenoliths. For that reason, all sources of iron ore are utilized by human diligence take benefit of iron oxide minerals, the chief form which is used in industry is known as hematite.

However, in a number of situations, more substandard iron ore sources have been utilized by manufacturing societies when right of entry to high-grade hematite ore was not obtainable. This has incorporated operation of taconite in the United States, predominantly during World War II, and goethite or bog ore utilized in the times of the American Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. Magnetite is often utilized for the reason that it is magnetic and hence effortlessly progressive from the gangue minerals.

Iron ore mining techniques differ by the type of ore that is being hauled out. There are 4 types of iron ore deposits that is being worked on at present, Based on the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits.


Iron Ore, directly from some of the largest producers in the world, from locations such as China, Australia and Brazil.


Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metalliciron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in Iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite(Fe3O4), haematite (Fe2O3), geothite, limonite or siderite Hematite is also known as "natural ore". The name refers to the early years of mining, when certain hematite ores contained 66% iron and could be fed directly into iron making blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig Iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel. 98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel.

Iron is a common metal found in the earth's crust, where it occurs in combination with other elements. The term "iron ore" is used when the rock is sufficiently rich in iron minerals to be mined economically.

Iron metal may be produced from the smelting of certain iron compounds. Their concentration in economic proportions is referred to as 'Iron Ore'.


Iron ore yields metallic iron (Fe) when heated in the presence of a reducing agent such as coke. Iron ore usually consists of iron oxides and carbonates.

Its most important mineral forms are magnetite (Fe3O4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe2O3, 69.9% Fe) and siderite (FeCO3, 48.29% Fe). In Brazil, some ore that contains practically no other minerals can grade as high as 68% Fe, but the crude ore mined in Canada grades between 30 and 44% Fe. Therefore, these mines crush and grind the ore, then use gravitational and magnetic concentration methods to produce concentrates with an iron content of about 65%.

Depending on grain size, the concentrate is then shipped as is, or agglomerated into balls about a centimetre in diameter and fired to produce hard iron ore pellets. Steel companies take the pellets and coke made from coal and load them into blast furnaces, where the minerals are reduced to metallic iron. Unpelletized concentrate received at steel plants is sintered before being charged to the blast furnace.




The major rock types mined for the production of metallic Iron are massive hematite, pisolitic goethite/limonite, which provide a 'high-grade' ore, and banded metasedimentary ironstone, magnetite-rich metasomatite, to a much lesser degree, rocks rich in siderite, rocks rich in chamosite which provide a 'low-grade' ore. The pure metal is silvery white, very ductile, strongly magnetic and melts at 1528 C. 


High-grade ore generally has a cut off grade of ~>60% Fe. Historically it has provided a direct feed to smelters either as a raw lump or fines, also in a processed form such as sinter or pellets. There are emerging markets for new varieties of feedstock. Examples include sintered iron carbide and 'DRI' ore, which is natural ore with Fe >69% and low levels of specific trace elements suitable as feed to 'direct reduction' smelters


Low-grade ore is a term applied to iron-rich rocks with cut-off grades in the range of 25-30% Fe. It was the main supply of iron ore for many centuries of the World's early history of production of iron. Since the 1950s North America's main supply has been low-grade or

 Major Iron Ore compounds



% FE







Goethite / Limonite

















Iron Ore accounts for approximately 95% of all metals used by modern industrial society. Metallic iron is most commonly produced from the smelting of iron ore to produce pig iron.

Steel is a processed form of pig iron with impurities such as silicon, phosphorus and sulphur removed and with a reduction in the carbon content. Globally, steel's versatility is unsurpassed. Wrought iron (low carbon) and cast iron (pig iron) also have important markets. One of the most ubiquitous products in Australia is corrugated iron, a structural sheet steel shaped into parallel furrows and ridges. It was invented by Henry Robinson Palmer in 1828 in London and quickly became popular for roofing and farm buildings.

Other well known uses of Iron Ore compounds are:

  • Iron sulphate used as fungicide, the oxalate of iron in photographic development, limonite, goethite, hematite as pigments and abrasives, magnetite in the production of industrial electrodes and also for washing coal.

  • Iron chloride and nitrate used as mordents and industrial reagents in the production of several types of inks.

  • Iron carbonyl as a catalyser of many chemical reactions micaceous hematite as a protective paint on steel superstructures.