Facts About Crude oil

  • Oil is a hydrocarbon derived from organic material typically from seas and lakes buried under great pressure and heat.
  • Oil has three main properties: density, viscosity, and solubility.
  • Oil falls into two categories
  1. Conventional oil starts at zero, rises rapidly to a peak or managed plateau, then it declines exponentially to exhaustion. Conventional oil is cheap, easy, and fast.
  2. Non-conventional (heavy) oil rises slowly and has a long plateau of production until exhaustion. Non-conventional is expensive, difficult, and slow.

Crude oil is classified as light, medium, or heavy, according to its measured API gravity.

Light Crude has an API gravity higher than 31.1 °API.
              - Medium Crude has an API gravity between 22.3 °API and 31.1 °API.
              - Heavy Crude has an API gravity below 22.3 °API.

API Gravity is a measure of how heavy or how light a petroleum liquid is compared to water. If its API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks. Most values fall between 10 and 70 API gravity degrees.

There are five primary types of crude oil:

  1. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) Oil, aka Texas Sweet Light, is a type of crude oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing and the underlying commodity of New York Mercantile Exchange's oil futures contracts. WTI and Brent Crude are usually referenced in Western news reports about oil prices. WTI is lighter than Brent Crude. Its properties & production site make it ideal to be refined in the US. Typical price difference per barrel is about $1 more than Brent, and $2more than OPEC Basket.
  2. Light Crude is crude oil with a low wax content.
  3. Sour Crude has a hydrogen sulfide level greater than 1%. It also contains carbon dioxide. It is usually processed into heavy oil such as diesel instead of gasoline to reduce processing costs. Venezuela is the world’s major producer.
  4. Sweet Crude contains less than 0.5% sulfur, and contains trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. It is commonly used for processing into gasoline.
  5. Brent Crude consists of Brent Crude, Brent Sweet Light Crude, Oseberg, and Forties. Brent Crude is sourced from the North Sea. The name 'Brent' comes from the formation layers - Broom, Rannoch, Etieve, Ness and Tarbat. Oil production from Europe, Africa and the Middle East tends to be priced relative to this oil. Brent is ideal for production of gasoline and is typically refined in Northwest Europe. Typical price difference per barrel is about $1 less than WTI and $1 more than OPEC Basket. Brent Crude has an API gravity of around 38.

Crude Oil Basics

Crude oil and natural gas are called hydrocarbons because both are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Natural gas molecules are generally shorter; four carbon atoms or less. Crude oil molecules contain five or more carbon atoms per molecule.

Crude Oil Refining

Crude oil is described as "crude" for a simple reason: It contains dozens of different hydrocarbon compounds. An oil refinery, in simplest terms does three things:
  1. Separate the dozens of compounds within the crude oil into individual chemical units.
  2. Remove contaminants.
  3. Convert or transform these individual chemical units into as much gasoline as possible.

Crude Oil and Petrochemicals

The two main classes of petrochemical raw materials coming out of refineries are olefins (including ethylene and propylene) and aromatics (including benzene and xylene isomers), both of which are produced in very large quantities.
Olefins - Produced mainly in the steam cracking and catalytic reforming processes. Ethylene and its derivatives are described in the natural gas basics page.
The main use of propylene is as a monomer, mostly for the production of polypropylene.

Polypropylene (PP) - A plastics raw material that takes the form of granules or powder that is shipped in hopper cars or palletized bins. It has properties similar to polyethylene (the plastic compound that comes from ethylene) but has a much higher melting temperature and is much stiffer. Propylene, hydrogen, and ethylene are the feed-stocks for PP. Consumer products made from polypropylene are many:

Aromatics - Aromatic hydrocarbons are mainly produced by catalytic reforming or similar processes. Benzene and one of its derivatives, xylene are the main aromatics produced from the refining process.
  • Benzene - Mainly used as an additive in gasoline (~1% by volume) and as an intermediate to make other chemicals, it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Smaller amounts of benzene are used to make some types of lubricants, explosives, and napalm. In addition to xylene, several benzene derivatives are in products we use every day:

Xylene - The term xylene refers to a group of 3 benzene derivatives; orthoxylene, metaxylene, and paraxylene.

Crude Oil Quality

API (American Petroleum Institute) Gravity - Most commercial descriptions of the types of oil center around its density, e.g., light crude, heavy crude, etc. API Gravity, the American Petroleum Institute's measure of oil density is the industries most used standard.

The U.S. National Bureau of Standards established the Baumé scale (degrees Baumé) as the standard for measuring specific gravity, or density of liquids less dense than water. API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water.


The formula for calculating API gravity is:
API Gravity = (141.50/Specific Gravity) - 131.50
Generally speaking 40 to 45 API gravity degree oils have the greatest commercial value because they are rich in gasoline. Condensates are worth slightly less because the natural gasoline has a lower octane value. Heavier crudes are worth less because they require more refinery processing. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) is the benchmark crude oil used by the United States to set prices and compare other oils. It has 38 to 40 API gravity.
Crude Oil Content - Sulfurs

Sour Crude - Crude oil containing free sulfur, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), or other sulfur-containing compounds in amounts greater than 1% is considered sour crude (SPE definition). As is the case with sour gas, the sulfurs must be removed from the crude oil before the oil can be refined and the refiner pays less for oil that contains sulfur. Sour crude is usually processed into heavy oil such as diesel and fuel oil rather than gasoline to reduce processing costs.

Sweet Crude - Oil that contains little or no sulfur is called sweet crude.

Crude Oil Content - Other Attributes

All crudes contain both paraffinic and naphthenic components but are differentiated based on the level of those components.

Parrafinic -Crude oil containing a relatively high percentage (by volume) of linear and branched paraffins. Most conventional engine lubricating oils today are made from paraffinic crude oil. As the name suggests, paraffinic crude contains wax and generally have a higher API gravity, e.g., they are lighter crudes. Many people believe the term paraffinic to be synonymous with wax. In lubricating oils, the wax is removed in a refining process not surprisingly called de-waxing.

Napthenic (Asphaltic) Crude - Naphthenic crude contain relatively little wax. Naphthenic crude oils contain mainly (by volume) napthenes and other aromatic hydrocarbons. They generally have a lower API gravity, e.g., they are the heavier crudes. They also contain other materials including metals such as nickel, iron, vanadium, and arsenic.

Petroleum: Petroleum Manufacturers

We are only concerned with marketing the Petroleum Products and some of these we can offer are:
D2 GAS OIL L0.2-62, GOST 305-82,
MAZUT M100 (GOST 10585/75),
MAZUT M100 GOST-10585-99,
BLCO,
Jet Fuel,GOST 10227-86
LPG 50/50,
Bitumen,
CST 180, 360,
LNG,
SLCO,
Bio-Diesel,
Gasoline – all octanes,
Naphtha
Libyan light Crude Oil


Full Tech. Specs for each items are available. Please enquire
We have direct sellers in Russia as well as in other countries. We provide petroleum products at reasonable prices. When dealing direct with Russian Oil Sellers one has to remember that there is small extra charge for use of oil pipe line is also payable separately to Transneft. This does not apply to non Russians seller.

Oil from other origins with different technical specifications are also available, please send us your enquiry.

Mazut 100

 

Origin

MAZUT 100, directly from some of the largest producers in the world, from locations such as Russia, Venezuela, Malaysia, and UAE.

Description

Petroleum is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons (chemical compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon) plus various impurities such as sulfur. Unprocessed petroleum is usually called crude oil, although it has been called mineral oil and Seneca oil, named for the Seneca Indians of Western Pennsylvania. The name petroleum is from a combination of Latin words meaning "rock oil". We refer to it here simply as oil.

As found in the earth, oil may have a variety of properties. Some forms are black, others dark green, and some light like kerosene. The liquid ranges from very viscous to easy-flowing. Crude oil usually consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons having varying molecular weights and differing from one another in structure and properties. These various species are separated into groups, or fractions, by a process of distillation called refining. Oil fuel, in all of its usable forms, is a refined product, unlike coal and natural gas which can often be burned in their natural condition.

Process

At a refinery, the oil is heated to separate the hydrocarbon fractions that are then further processed and blended to produce petrol and diesel. Specially developed performance components may be added to standard grade petrol or diesel to offer a range of benefits to customers – these are known as “differentiated fuels”.

The introduction of advanced engine control systems, catalytic converters and particulate traps has made it possible to control modern vehicle emissions and improve local air quality in many countries. Catalytic converters convert pollutants like carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides into carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Particulate traps remove particulates through filtration and oxidation. The introduction of these technologies followed the removal of lead from petrol and reductions of sulphur levels in petrol and diesel.

When used in vehicles with catalytic converters and particulate traps, low-sulphur petrol and diesel can reduce tailpipe emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates by more than 90% compared to emissions from older technology vehicles.

Almost all petrol once included lead additives to help high compression engines run more smoothly. These lead additives had to be removed to enable catalytic converters to work. Lead in fuels also prompted health concerns. After substantial investment in alternative ways to raise octane levels, lead has now been phased out from automotive petrol in most countries.

Sulphur is naturally present in petrol and diesel. When sulphur is burnt in an engine, sulphur oxides form which can reduce the efficiency of catalytic converters and particulate traps. Sulphur oxides can also contribute to smog and acid rain. Modern refineries can reduce sulphur levels in petrol and diesel. But removing sulphur increases energy use – leading to higher CO2 emissions - and requires significant investment in the refinery system. It also increases the amount of solid sulphur as a by-product. 

Petrol and diesel can also be blended with new fuel components to help further reduce local emissions and overall CO2 production – for example gas-to-liquids (GTL) fuel and biofuels.

Packaging

44 gallon barrels/ Metric Tonne

Specifications

 

Specifications for HEAVY FUEL OIL/ MAZUT M100 (GOST 10585-75)

 

 

Certificate of Quality

 

COMPONENT

RESULT

1

Ash content, not more %

0.14

2

Mass fraction of sulphur, not more % -low-sulphur-residual-oil

0.5

3

Temperature of the flash, not less deg. C in the closed crucible

110 min

4

The temperature of solidification, not higher C

25

5

Kinematics viscosity

118 max

6

Water content %

0.5

7

Mechanical impurities lower than %

0.1

8

Acidity lower than, mg/KOH/100ml

5

9

Alkalinity

nil

10

Gross calorific value Kcal/kg/KJ/kg

9700/41300 min

11

Density at 20 deg. C/Kg/l

0.8900-0.9200

12

Hydrogen Sulfide Content (H2S) ppm

0.5 max

13

Carbon residual, lower than %

7

14

Vanadium (V) ppm

23

15

Aluminum (Al) ppm

5

16

Silicon (Si) ppm

12

17

Nickel (Ni) ppm

29

18

Asphaltense m/m, %

4

19

Distillation @ 4 mm Hg

Extracted to760 mm Hg

Initial Boiling Point deg. C

5% recovered deg. C

10% recovered deg. C

20% recovered deg. C

30% recovered deg. C

40% recovered deg. C

50% recovered deg. C

60% recovered deg. C

75% recovered deg. C

80% recovered deg. C

95% recovered deg. C

Final Boiling point deg. C

Percent recovered vol

Residual vol

Total nitrogen m/m

 

 

216

259

310

358

445

502

534

538

545

-

550

560

78%

22%

0.192%

20

Sodium (Na) ppm

15

Use

As a fuel, oil is used primarily in the form of gasoline and deisel to power vehicles. Thus it is the source of our mobility. Almost all cars, trucks, buses, boats, trains and planes run on oil. Significant amounts are also used to power portable devices and stationery engines.

 

JP-54

Origin

JP-54, directly from some of the largest producers in the world, from locations such as Russia, Venezuela, Malaysia, and UAE.

Description

Petroleum is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons (chemical compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon) plus various impurities such as sulfur. Unprocessed petroleum is usually called crude oil, although it has been called mineral oil and Seneca oil, named for the Seneca Indians of Western Pennsylvania. The name petroleum is from a combination of Latin words meaning "rock oil". We refer to it here simply as oil.

As found in the earth, oil may have a variety of properties. Some forms are black, others dark green, and some light like kerosene. The liquid ranges from very viscous to easy-flowing. Crude oil usually consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons having varying molecular weights and differing from one another in structure and properties. These various species are separated into groups, or fractions, by a process of distillation called refining. Oil fuel, in all of its usable forms, is a refined product, unlike coal and natural gas which can often be burned in their natural condition.

Process

At a refinery, the oil is heated to separate the hydrocarbon fractions that are then further processed and blended to produce petrol and diesel. Specially developed performance components may be added to standard grade petrol or diesel to offer a range of benefits to customers – these are known as “differentiated fuels”.

The introduction of advanced engine control systems, catalytic converters and particulate traps has made it possible to control modern vehicle emissions and improve local air quality in many countries. Catalytic converters convert pollutants like carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides into carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Particulate traps remove particulates through filtration and oxidation. The introduction of these technologies followed the removal of lead from petrol and reductions of sulphur levels in petrol and diesel.

When used in vehicles with catalytic converters and particulate traps, low-sulphur petrol and diesel can reduce tailpipe emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates by more than 90% compared to emissions from older technology vehicles.

Almost all petrol once included lead additives to help high compression engines run more smoothly. These lead additives had to be removed to enable catalytic converters to work. Lead in fuels also prompted health concerns. After substantial investment in alternative ways to raise octane levels, lead has now been phased out from automotive petrol in most countries.

Sulphur is naturally present in petrol and diesel. When sulphur is burnt in an engine, sulphur oxides form which can reduce the efficiency of catalytic converters and particulate traps. Sulphur oxides can also contribute to smog and acid rain. Modern refineries can reduce sulphur levels in petrol and diesel. But removing sulphur increases energy use – leading to higher CO2 emissions - and requires significant investment in the refinery system. It also increases the amount of solid sulphur as a by-product. 

Petrol and diesel can also be blended with new fuel components to help further reduce local emissions and overall CO2 production – for example gas-to-liquids (GTL) fuel and biofuels.

Packaging

44 gallon barrels/ Metric Tonne

Specifications  

                                                                  Jet Fuel Colonial Grade 54 (JP54) Specifications

Antioxidant in hydro processed fuel PROPERTY ADDITIVES

mg/I mg/I UNIT

min max RESULT

17 24 TEST-IP

METHOD

ASTM

Stadis 450 Antioxidant non hydro processed fuel Static dissipater first doping ASA-3 COMBUSTION PROPERTIES Specific energy, net

mg/I mg/I mg/I

min min min

3 24 1

 

D4808 D1322

Naphthalenes Smoke point Luminomitter number COMPOSITION Total Acidity

% vol mj/lkg mm mg KOH/g

max min min min max

3 18.4 19 45 0.01

            354 158 107      

D1840 D1740 D3242 D1318

Doctor, test Aromatics Sulphur, Total Sulphur, Mercaptan

% vol % mass % mass

max max max

22 0.30 0.003

30 342

D4952 D1266/2622 D3227

VOLATILITY Initial Boiling Point 10% vol at C 20% vol at C 50% vol at C 80% vol at C End point Recovered residuals Loss Flash Point Density at 15 C

Centigrade Centigrade % vol % vol Centigrade kg/m 2

max max max max max min/max

Report 240 Report Report Report 300 1.5 1.5 42 776/840

123 170/303 180/385

D96 D56/3828 D1298

LOW TEMPERATURE Freezing Point

Centigrade

max

-40

15

D2256

CORROSION Corrosion, copper (2hrs at 100C) Corrosion, silver (4hrs at 50C)

 

max max

1 1

154 227

D130

STABILITY Thermal stability control, Temp. 280C Filter pressure, differential mm.Hg Tube deposit rating (visual) CONTAMINATIONS

 

max max

323 25

<3

 

Fuel without static dissipater additive Existent Gum Water reaction, interface rating Fuel with static dissipater additives

mg/100ml

min max max min

85 7 16 75

131 258

D361 D1084 D3648

 

CONDUCTIVITY Electrical conductivity

       p 3 /m

 

Report

 

 

Use
As a fuel, oil is used primarily in the form of gasoline and deisel to power vehicles. Thus it is the source of our mobility. Almost all cars, trucks, buses, boats, trains and planes run on oil. Significant amounts are also used to power portable devices and stationery engines.

 

Gas Oil D2

Origin

Gas Oil D2, directly from some of the largest producers in the world, from locations such as Russia, Venezuela, Malaysia, and UAE.

Description

Petroleum is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons (chemical compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon) plus various impurities such as sulfur. Unprocessed petroleum is usually called crude oil, although it has been called mineral oil and Seneca oil, named for the Seneca Indians of Western Pennsylvania. The name petroleum is from a combination of Latin words meaning "rock oil". We refer to it here simply as oil.

As found in the earth, oil may have a variety of properties. Some forms are black, others dark green, and some light like kerosene. The liquid ranges from very viscous to easy-flowing. Crude oil usually consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons having varying molecular weights and differing from one another in structure and properties. These various species are separated into groups, or fractions, by a process of distillation called refining. Oil fuel, in all of its usable forms, is a refined product, unlike coal and natural gas which can often be burned in their natural condition.

Process

At a refinery, the oil is heated to separate the hydrocarbon fractions that are then further processed and blended to produce petrol and diesel. Specially developed performance components may be added to standard grade petrol or diesel to offer a range of benefits to customers – these are known as “differentiated fuels”.

The introduction of advanced engine control systems, catalytic converters and particulate traps has made it possible to control modern vehicle emissions and improve local air quality in many countries. Catalytic converters convert pollutants like carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides into carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Particulate traps remove particulates through filtration and oxidation. The introduction of these technologies followed the removal of lead from petrol and reductions of sulphur levels in petrol and diesel.

When used in vehicles with catalytic converters and particulate traps, low-sulphur petrol and diesel can reduce tailpipe emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates by more than 90% compared to emissions from older technology vehicles.

Almost all petrol once included lead additives to help high compression engines run more smoothly. These lead additives had to be removed to enable catalytic converters to work. Lead in fuels also prompted health concerns. After substantial investment in alternative ways to raise octane levels, lead has now been phased out from automotive petrol in most countries.

Sulphur is naturally present in petrol and diesel. When sulphur is burnt in an engine, sulphur oxides form which can reduce the efficiency of catalytic converters and particulate traps. Sulphur oxides can also contribute to smog and acid rain. Modern refineries can reduce sulphur levels in petrol and diesel. But removing sulphur increases energy use – leading to higher CO2 emissions - and requires significant investment in the refinery system. It also increases the amount of solid sulphur as a by-product. 

Petrol and diesel can also be blended with new fuel components to help further reduce local emissions and overall CO2 production – for example gas-to-liquids (GTL) fuel and biofuels.

 Packaging

44 gallon barrels/ Metric Tonne

Specifications 
                                                                L 0.2-62, GOST 305-82

 

RUSSIAN GAS OIL D2 GOST 305-82

 

COMPONENT

 

UNIT

MIN

MAX

Density@ 20 deg C

Kg / m³

 

0.870

Color

1.0

1.0

2.0

Flash point, PMCC

Deg C (°C)

57

66

Kinematic viscosity @20 deg C

C ST

3.0

6.0

Pour point

Deg C (°C)

(*)

-10.0

Cloud point

Deg C (°C)

(*)

-5.0

Mercaptan Sulphur

 

 

0.01

Acidity, mg / 1000 cm³

 

 

5

Iodine number

g/100g

 

6

Ash

%wt

 

0.01

Total Sulphur

%wt

0.02

0.05

Copper corrosion

3hrs@50 deg C

(Typical)

1A

CCR on 10% Residues

%wt

 

0.20

Cetane Index

 

45

 

Distillation range:

 

 

 

- 50% Recovered Volume

deg C (°C)

 

280

- 90% Recovered Volume

deg C (°C)

 

350

- Bacteria MBC

Fibre / it

 

500

- Bacteria CFU

Fibre / it

 

1000

(*) Summer from March to October (PP – 5.0 degrees C)

Summer from March to October (CP – 0.0 degrees C)

Winter from November to February (PP – 10.0 degrees C)

Winter from November to February (CP – 5.0 degrees C)

Use
As a fuel, oil is used primarily in the form of gasoline and deisel to power vehicles. Thus it is the source of our mobility. Almost all cars, trucks, buses, boats, trains and planes run on oil. Significant amounts are also used to power portable devices and stationery engines.

Delphi.2000